Our Tier 2 Emission Factor calculation protocols are out and available open access:

Marquardt S, Ndung’u PW, Onyango AA and Merbold L (2020) Protocol for a Tier 2 approach to generate region-specific enteric methane emission factors (EF) for cattle kept in smallholder systems. ILRI Manual 39. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.

Leitner S, Pelster D, Owino J, Marquardt S and Merbold L (2020) Protocol for generating region-specific Tier 2 emission factors for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cattle manure. ILRI Manual 36. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.

Access our data provided in the IPCC database (Data IDs: 424897-424904 (SOILS), 422663-422667 (MANURE),  424322-424315 (ANIMALS)

Peer-reviewed articles (see a list of our journal articles in cgspace here)


Butterbach-Bahl K, Gettel G, Kiese R, Fuchs K, Werner C, Rahimi J, Barthel M and Merbold L (2020) Livestock enclosures in drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa are overlooked hotspots of N2O emissions. Nature Communications 11,

Fuchs K, Merbold L, Buchmann N, Bretscher D, Brilli L, Fitton N, Topp CFE, Klumpp K, Lieffering M, Martin R, Newton PCD, Rees RM, Rolinski S, Smith P, Snow V (2020) Multi–model evaluation of nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed grassland. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences

Goopy JP, Korir D, Pelster D, Ali AIM, Wassie SE, Schlecht E, Dickhöfer U, Merbold L, Butterbach-Bahl K (2020) Severe below-maintenance feed intake increases methane yield from enteric fermentation in cattle. British Journal of Nutrition

Ineichen S, Marquardt S, Kreuzer M, Reidy B (2020) Forage quality of species‐rich mountain grasslands subjected to zero, PK and NPK mineral fertilization for decades. Grass and Forage Science

Leitner S, Dirnboeck T, Kobler J, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2020) Legacy effects of drought on nitrate leaching in a temperate mixed forest on karst. Journal of Environmental Management 262,

Milojevic V, Sinz S, Kreuzer M, Chiumia D, Marquardt S, Giller K (2020) Partitioning of fatty acids into tissues and fluids from reproductive organs of ewes as affected by dietary phenolic extracts. Theriogenology 144, 174-184

Pastorello G, Trotta C, Canfora E …. Merbold L, ….. Papale D (2020) The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data. Scientific Data 7, 225 (2020).

Räsänen M, Merbold L, Vakkari V, Aurela M, Laakso L, Beikes JP, Van Zyl PG, Josipovic M, Feig G, Pellikka P, Rinne J and Kautl GG (2020) Root-zone soil moisture variability across African savannas: from pulsed rainfall to landcover switches. Ecohydrology

Ueyama M, Ichii K, Kobayashi H, Kumagai T, Beringer J, Merbold L, Euskirchen E, Hirano T, Belelli Marchesini L, Baldocchi D, Taku S, Mizoguchi Y, Ono K, Joon K, Varlagin A, Kang M, Shimizu T,  Kosugi Y, Bret-Harte M, Machimura T, Matsuura Y, Ohta T, Takagi K, Takanashi S, Yasuda Y (2020) Inferring CO2 fertilization effect based on global monitoring land-atmosphere exchange with a theoretical model. Environmental Research Letters

van Wijk MT, Merbold L, Hammond J and Butterbach-Bahl K (2020) Improving Assessments of the Three Pillars of Climate Smart Agriculture: Current Achievements and Ideas for the Future. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4:558483. doi:10.3389/fsufs.2020.558483

Wachiye S, Merbold L, Vesala T, Rinne J, Räsänen M, Leitner S, Pellikka P (2020) Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Different Land-Use Types in Savanna Ecosystems of Kenya. Biogeosciences 17, 2149–2167,

Zhu Y, Merbold L, Leitner S, Xia L, Pelster DE, Diaz-Pines E, Abwanda S, Mutuo PM and Butterbach-Bahl K (2020) Influence of soil properties on N2O and CO2 emissions from excreta deposited on tropical pastures in Kenya. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 140: 107636

Zhu Y, Merbold L, Leitner S, Pelster DE, Okoma AA, Ngetich F, Onyango AA, Pellikka P, Butterbach-Bahl K (2020) The effects of climate on manure decomposition for cattle, sheep and goat in Kenyan tropcial pastures. Plant and Soil


Ali AIM, Wassie SE, Korir D, Merbold L, Goopy JP, Butterbach-Bahl K, Dickhoefer U and Schlecht E (2019) Supplementing tropical cattle for improved nutrient utilization and reduced enteric methane emissions. Animals (5), 210,

Ali AIM, Wassie SE, Korir D, Goopy JP, Merbold L, Butterbach-Bahl K, Dickhoefer U and Schlecht E (2019) Digesta passage and nutrient digestibility in Boran steers at low feed intake levels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 103(5): 1325-1337. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13158.

Besnard S, Carvalhais N, Arain MA, Black A, Brede B, Buchmann N, Chen J, Clevers JGPW, Dutrieux LP, Gans F, Herold M, Jung M, Kosugi Y, Knohl A, Law BE, Paul-Limoges E, Lohila A, Merbold L, Roupsard O, Valentini R, Wolf S, Zhang X, Reichstein M (2019) Memory effects of climate and vegetation affecting net ecosystem CO2 fluxes in global forests. PLOS One doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211510

Fitton N, Bindi M, Brilli L, Cichota R, Dibari C, Fuchs K, Huguenin-Elie O, Klumpp K, Lieffering M, Lüscher A, Martin R, McAuliffe R, Merbold L, Newton P, Rees RM, Smith P, Topp CFE, Snow V (2019) Modelling biological N fixation and grass-legume dynamics with process-based biogeochemical models of varying complexity. European Journal of Agronomy, 

Goopy JP (2019) Creating a low enteric methane emission ruminant: What is the evidence of success to the present and prospects for developing economies? Animal Production Science 59(10):1769-1776

Leparmarai PT, Sinz S, Kunz C, Liesegang A, Ortmann S, Kreuzer M, Marquardt S (2019) Transfer of total phenols from a grapeseed-supplemented diet to dairy sheep and goat milk, and effects on performance and milk quality. Journal of Animal Sciences, doi:10.1093/jas/skz046

Liu D, Keiblinger KM, Leitner S, Wegner U, Zimmermann M, Fuchs S, Lassek C, Riedel K and Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2019) Response of microbial communities and their metabolic functions to drying–rewetting stress in a temperate forest soil. Microorganisms 7(5): 129

Onyango AA, Dickhoefer U, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Goopy JP (2019) Temporal and spatial variability in the nutritive value of pasture vegetation and supplement feedstuffs for domestic ruminants in Western Kenyas. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

Peaucelle M, Bacour C, Ciais P, Vuichard N, Kuppel S, Penuelas J, Belelli Marchesini L, Blanken PD, Buchmann N, Chen J, Delpierre N, Desai AR, Dufrêne E, Gianelle D, Gimeno-​Colera C, Gruening C, Helfter C, Hörtnagl L, Ibrom A, Joffre R, Kato T, Kolb T, Law B, Lindroth A, Mammarella I, Merbold L, Minerbi S, Montagnani L, Šigut L, Sutton M, Varlagin A, Vesala T, Wohlfahrt G, Wolf S, Yakir D, Viovy N (2019) Co-​variations between plant functional traits emerge from constraining parameterization of a terrestrial biosphere model with in situ GPP estimates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 28: 1351–1365 doi: 10.1111/geb.12937

Sinz S, Liesegang A, Kreuzer M and Marquardt S (2019) Do supplements of Acacia mearnsii and grapeseed extracts alone or in combination alleviate metabolic nitrogen load and manure nitrogen emissions of lambs fed a high crude protein diet? Archives of Animal Nutrition 73(4)

Wachiye S, Merbold L, Vesala T, Rinne J, Räsänen M, Leitner S, Pellikka P: Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Different Land-Use Types in Savanna Ecosystems of Kenya. Biogeosciences Discussions, 2019, doi:10.5194/bg-2019-407

Wang S, Giller K, Hillmann E, Marquardt S and Schwarm A (2019) Effect of supplementation of pelleted hazel (Corylus avellana) leaves on blood antioxidant activity, cellular immune response, and heart beat parameters in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 97(11): 4496–4502

Wassie SE, Ali AIM, Korir D, Butterbach-Bahl K, Goopy JP, Merbold L, Schlecht E, Dickhoefer U (2019) Effects of feed intake level on efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in Boran steers consuming tropical poor-quality forage. Archives of Animal Nutrition


Arrouays D, Saby NPA, Boukir H, Jolivet C, Ratié C, Schrumpf M, Merbold L, Gielen B, Gogo S, Delpierre N, Vincent G, Klumpp K, and Loustau D (2018) Soil sampling and preparation for monitoring soil carbon. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0047

Carrara A, Kolari P, Op de Beeck M, Arriga N, Berveiller D, Dengel S, Ibrom A, Merbold L, Rebmann C, Sabbatini S, Serrano-Ortíz P, and Biraud SC  (2018) Radiation measurements at ICOS ecosystem stations. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0049

Chen Z, Lin S, Yao Z, Zheng X, Gschwendtner S, Schloter M, Liu M, Zhang Y, Butterbach-Bahl K, Dannenmann M (2018) Enhanced nitrogen cycling and N2O loss in water-saving ground cover rice production systems (GCRPS). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 121, 77-86,

Dengel S, Graf A, Gruenwald T, Hehn M, Kolari P, Ottoson Loefvenius M, Merbold L, Nicolini G, Pavelka M (2018) Standardized precipitation measurements within ICOS: rain, snowfall and snow depth. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0046

Djukic I, Kepfer-Rojas S, Schmidt IK, Larsen KS, Beier C, Berg B, Verheyend K, TeaComposition* (2018)  Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. Science of the Total Environment 628-629: 1369-1394, *among others: Carbonell V

Fuchs K, Hoertnagl L, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Snow V and Merbold L (2018) Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy for nitrous oxide emissions on intensively managed grassland. Biogeosciences 15, 5519-5543

Franz D, Acosta M, Alitmir N, Arriga N, Arrouays D, Aubinet M, Aurela M, Ayres E, Lopez-Ballesteros A, Barbaste M, Berveiller D, Biraud S, Boukir H, Brown T, Bruemmer C, Buchmann N, Burma G, Carrara A, Cescatti A, Ceschia E, Clement R, Cremonese E, Crill P, Darenova E, Dengel S, D’Odorico P, Filippa D, Fleck S, Fratini G, Fuss R, Gielen B, Gogo S, Grace J, Graf A, Grelle A, Gross P, Gruenwald T, Haapanala S, Hehn M, Heinesch B, Heimkamen J, Herbst M, Herschlein C, Hoertnagl L, Hufkens K, Ibrom A, Jolivet C, Joly L, Jones M, Kiese R, Klemedtsson L, Kljun K, Klumpp K, Kolari P, Kolle O, Kowalski A, Kutsch WL, Laurila T, De Ligne A, Linder S, Lindroth A, Lohila A, Longdoz B, Mammarella I, Manise T, Maranon-Jiminez S, Matteucci G, Mauder M, Meier P, Merbold L, Mereu S, Metzger S, Migliavacca M, Moleder M, Montagnani L, Mouraeuc C, Nelson D, nemitz E, Nicolini G, Nilsson MB, Op de Beek M, Osborne B, Ottosson Loefvenius M, Pavelka M, Peichl M, Peltola O, Pihlatie M, Pitacco A, Pokorny R, Pumpanen J, Ratié C, Rebmann C, Roland M, Sabbatini S, Saby NPA, Saunder M, Schmid HP, Schrumpf M, Sedlák P, Serrano-Ortiz P, Siebicke L, Sigurd L, Silvennoinen H, Simioni G, Skibe U, Sonnentag O, Soudani K, Soulé P, Steinbrecher R, Tallec T, Thimonier A, Tuittila ES, Tuovinen JP, Vestin P, Vincent G, Vincke C, Vitale D, Waldner P, Weslien P, Wingate L, Wohlfahrt G, Sahniger M, Vesala T (2018) Towards long-term standardised carbon and greenhouse gas observations for monitoring Europe’s terrestrial ecosystems. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0039

Gielen B, Acosta M, Altimir N, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Ceschia E, Fleck S, Hörtnagl L, Klumpp K, Kolari P, Lohila A, Loustau D,Marañon-Jimenez S, Manise T, Matteucci G, Merbold L, Metzger C, Moureaux C, Montagnani L, Nilsson MB, Osborne B, Papale D, Pavelka M, Saunders M, Simioni G, Soudani K, Sonnentag O, Tallec T, Tuittila ES, Peichl M, Pokorny R, Vincke C, and Wohlfahrt G (2018) Ancillay vegetation measurements at ICOS ecosystem stations. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0048

Goopy JP, Onyango AA, Dickhoefer U and Butterbach-Bahl K (2018) A new approach for improving emission factors for enteric methane emissions of cattle in smallholder systems of East Africa – Results for Nyando, Western Kenya. Agricultural Systems 161, 72-80,

Hoertnagl L, Barthel M, Buchmann N, Eugster W, Butterbach-Bahl K, Diaz-Pines E, Zeeman M, Klumpp K, Kiese R, Bahn M, Hammerle A, Lu H, Ladreiter-Knauss T, Burri S and Merbold L (2018) Greenhouse gas fluxes over managed grasslands in Central Europe. Global Change Biology doi:10.1111/gcb.14079

Jacobs SR, Weeser B, Guzha AC, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Windhorst D and Breuer L (2018) Using high-resolution data to assess land use impact on nitrate dynamics in East African Tropical Montane Catchments. Water Resources Research, 54. 2017WR021592

Jacobs SR, Timbe E, Weser B, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Breuer L (2018) Assessment of hydrological pathways in East African montane catchments under different land use. Hydrol. Earth. Syst. Sci. 22, 4981-5000

Lopez-Ballesteros A, Beck J, Bombelli A, Grieco E, Lorencova EK, Merbold L, Bruemmer C, Hugo W, Scholes RJ, Vackar D, Vermeulen A, Acosta M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Helmschrot J, Kim D-G, Jones M, Jorch V, Pavelka M, Skjelvan I, Saunders M (2018) Towards a feasible and representative pan-African Research Infrastructure network for GHG observations. Environmental Research Letters (in press)

Lousteau D, Alitmir N, Barbaste M, Gielen B, Maranon-Jiminez S, Klumpp K, Linder S, Matteucci G, Merbold L, Op de Beek M, Soulé P, Thimonier A, Vincke C, Waldner P (2018) Sampling and collecting foliage elements for the determination of foliar nutrients in ICOS ecosystem stations. International Agrophysics doi: 10.1515/intag-2017-0038

Montagnani L, Gruenwald T, Kowalski A, Mamarella I, Merbold L, Metzger S, Sedlak P, Sibiecke L (2018) Estimating the storage term in eddy covariance measurements: the ICOS methodology. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0037

Ndung’u P, Bebe BO, Ondit J, Butterbach-Bahl K, Merbold L, Goopy JP (2018) Improved region-specific emission factors for enteric methane emissions from cattle in smallholder mixed crop-livestock systems of Nandi county, Kenya. Animal Production Science

Nemitz E, Mammarella I, Ibrom A, Aurela M, Burba GG, Dengel S, Gielen B, Grelle A, Heinesch B, Herbst M, Hörtnagl L, Klemedtsson L, Lindroth A, Lohila A, McDermitt DK, Meier P, Merbold L, Nelson D, Nicolini G, Nilsson MP, Peltola O, Rinne J, and Zahniser M (2018)  Standardisation of eddy-covariance flux measurements of methane and nitrous oxide. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0042

Oduor CO, Karanja NK, Onwonga RN, Mureithi SM, Pelster DE and Nyberg G (2018) Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi‑arid rangeland using pasture enclosures. BMC Ecology

Oduor CO , Karanja N, Onwong’a RN, Mureithi SM, Pelster DE and Nyberg G (2018) Pasture enclosures increase soil carbon dioxide flux rate in Semiarid Rangeland, Kenya. Carbon Balance and Management 13:24,

Op de Beek M, Gielen B, Merbold L, Ayres E, Serrano-Ortiz P, Acosta M, Pavelka M, Montagnani L, Nilsson M, Klemedtsson L, Vincke C, De Ligne A, Moureaux C, Maranon-Jiminiez S, Saunders M, Mereu S, Hoertnagl L (2018) Soil-meteorological measurements at ICOS monitoring stations in terrestrial ecosystems. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0041

Pavelka M, Acosta M, Kiese R, Altimir N, Bruemmer C, Grill P, Darenova E, Fuss R, Gielen B, Graf A, Klemedtsson L, Lolita A, Lindroth A, Nilsson M, Marano-Jiminez S, Merbold L, Montagnani L, Peichl M, Pihlatie M, Pumpanen J, Serrano-Ortiz P, Silvennoinen H, Skiba U, Vertin P, Weslien P, Kutsch WL (2018) Standardization of chmaber techniwue for CO2, N2O and CH4 flux measurements from terrestrial ecosystems. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0045

Qiu C, Zhu D, Ciais P, Guenet B, Krinner G, Peng S, Aurela M, Bernhofer C, Brümmer C, Bret-Harte S, Chu H, Chen J, Desai AR, Dušek J,  Euskirchen ES, Fortuniak K, Flanagan LB, Friborg T,Grygoruk M, Gogo S, Grünwald T, Hansen BU, Holl D, Humphreys E, Hurkuck M, Kiely G, Klatt J, Kutzbach L, Largeron C, Laggoun-Défarge F, Lund M, Lafleur PM, Li X, Mammarella I, Merbold L, Nilsson MB, Olejnik J, Ottosson-Löfvenius M, Oechel W, Parmentier FJW, Peichl M, Pirk N, Peltola O, Pawlak W, Rasse D, Rinne J, Shaver G, Schmid HP, Sottocornola M, Steinbrecher R, Sachs T, Urbaniak M, Zona D, and Ziemblinska K (2018) ORCHIDEE-PEAT, a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales. Geoscientific Model Development 11: 497-519

Rebmann C, Aubinet M, Schmid H-P, Arriga N, Aurela M, Burba G, Clement R, De Ligne A, Fratini G, Gielen B, Grace J, Graf A, Gross P, Haapalana S, Herbst M, Hoertnagl L, Ibrom A, Joly L, Kljun N, Kolle O, Kowalski A, Lindroth A, Lousteau D, Mammarella I, Mauder M, Merbold L, Metzger S, Moelder M, Montagnani L, Papale D, Pavelka M, Peichl M, Roland M, Serrano-Ortiz P, Siebicke L, Steinbrecher R, Tuovinen J-P, Vesala T, Wohlfahrt G, Franz D (2018) ICOS eddy covariance flux-station site setup. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0044

Sabbatini S, Mammarella I, Arriga N, Fratini G, Graf A, Hörtnagl L, Ibrom A, Longdoz B, Mauder M, Merbold L, Metzger S, Montagnani L, Pitacco A, Rebmann C, Sedlák P, Šigut L, Vitale D, and Papale D (2018) Eddy covariance raw data processing for Co2 and energy flux calculations at ICOS ecosystem stations. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0043

Sandor R, Ehrhardt F, Brilli L, Carozzi M, Recous S, Smith P, Snow V, Soussana J-F, Dorich CD, Fuchs K, Fitton N, Gongadze K, Klumpp K, Liebig M, Martin R, Merbold L, Newton PCD, Rees RM, Rolinski R, Bellocchi G (2018) The use of biogeochemical models to evaluate mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands. Science of the Total Environment 642, 292-206

Saunders M, Dengel S, Kolari P, Mopureaux C, Montagnani L, Ceschia E, Altimir N, Lopez-Ballesteros A, Maranon-Jiminez S, Schrumpf M, Acosta M, Klumpp K, Gielen B, Op de Beeck M, Hoertnagl L, Merbold L, Osborne B, Gruenwald T, Arrouays D, Boukir H, Saby N, Nicolini G, Papale D, Jones M (2018) Assessing the impacts of site characteristics, management, disturbance and lateral fluxes on greenhouse gas dynamics. International Agrophysics doi:10.1515/intag-2017-0040

von Buttlar J, Zscheischler J, Rammig A, Sippel S, Reichstein M, Knohl A, Jung M, Menzer O, Arain MA, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Gianelle D, Kiely G, Law BE, Magliulo V, Margolis H, McCaughey H, Merbold L, Migliavacca M, Montagnani L, Oechel W, Pavelka M, Peichl M, Rambal S, Raschi A, Scott RL, Vaccari FP, van Gorsel E, Varlagin A, Wohlfahrt G and Mahecha MD (2018) Impacts of droughts and extreme temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones. Biogeosciences 15, 1293-1318,

Wanyama I, Pelster DE, Arias-Navarro C, Butterbach-Bahl K, Verchot LV, Rufino MC (2018) Management intensity controls soil N2O fluxes in an Afromontane ecosystem. Science of the Total Environment 624, 769-780, 

Wanyama I, Rufino MC, Pelster DE, Wanyama GN, Atzberge C, van Asten P, Verchot LV, Butterbach-Bahl K (2018) Land Use, Land Use History, and Soil Type Affect Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes From Agricultural Landscapes of the East African Highlands. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences

Ziemblińska K, Urbaniak M, Merbold L, Black TA, Jagodziński AM,Herbst M, Qiu C,Olejnik J (2018) The carbon balance of a Scots pine forest following severe windthrow: Comparison of reforestation techniques. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 260–261: 216–228

Zhu Y, Merbold L, Pelster D, Diaz-Pines E, Wanyama GN, Butterbach-Bahl K (2018) Effect of dung quantity and quality on greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical pastures in Kenya. Global Biogeochemical Cycles doi: 10.1029/2018GB005949 


Arias-Navarro C, Díaz-Pinés E, Klatt S, Brandt P, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K and Verchot LV (2017) Spatial variability of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes in different topographic positions in a tropical montane forest in Kenya. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 122, 514–527, doi:10.1002/2016JG003667

Arias-Navarro C, Díaz-Pinés E, Zuazo P, Rufino MC, Verchot L, Butterbach-Bahl K (2017) Quantifying the contribution of land use to N2O, NO and CO2 fluxes in a montane forest ecosystem of Kenya. Biogeochemistry 134 (1-2)95–114 doi:10.1007/s10533-017-0348-3

Brandt P, Kvakić M, Butterbach-Bahl K and Rufino MC (2017) How to target climate-smart agriculture? Concept and application of the consensus-driven decision support framework “targetCSA”. Agricultural Systems 151: 234 –245

Chiti T, Diaz-Pines E, Butterbach-Bahl K, Marzaioli F, Valentini R (2017) Soil organic carbon changes following degradation and conversion to cypress and tea plantations in a tropical mountain forest in Kenya. Plant and Soil

Diaz-Pines E, Molina-Herrera S, Dannenmann M, Braun J, Haas E, Willibald G, Arias-Navarro C, Grote R, Wolf B, Saiz G, Aust C, Schnitzler JP, Butterbach-Bahl K (2017) Nitrate leaching and soil nitrous oxide emissions diminish with time in a hybrid poplar short-rotation coppice in southern Germany. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 9, 613–626, doi: 10.1111/gcbb.12367

Ehrhardt F, Soussana J-F, Bellocchi G, Grace P, McAuliffe R, Recous S, Sándor R, Smith P, Snow V, Migliorati MDA, Basso B, Bhatia A, Brilli L, Doltra J, Dorich CD, Doro L, Fitton N, Giacomini SJ, Grant B, Harrison MT, Jones SK, Kirschbaum MUF, Klumpp K, Laville P, Léonard J, Liebig M, Lieffering M, Martin R, Massad RS, Meier E, Merbold L, Moore AD, Myrgiotis V, Newton P, Pattey E, Rolinski S, Sharp J, Smith WN, Wu L, Zhang Q (2017) Assessing uncertainties in crop and pasture ensemble model simulations of productivity and N2O emissions. Global Change Biology doi:10.1111/gcb.13965

Fu J, Gasche R, Wang N, Lu H, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2017) Impacts of climate and management on water balance and nitrogen leaching from montane grassland soils of S-Germany. Environmental Pollution 229, 119-131,

Goopy JP, Pelster DE, Onyango A, Marshall K, Lukuyu M (2017) Simple and robust algorithms to estimate live weight in African smallholder cattle.  Animal Production Sciences doi:10.1071/AN16577

Ichii K, Ueyama M, Kondo M, Saigusa N, Kim J, Carmelita Alberto M, Ardö J, Euskirchen ES, Kang M, Hirano T, Joiner J, Kobayashi H, Belelli Marchesini L, Merbold L, Miyata A, Saitoh TM, Takagi K, Varlagin A, Bret-Harte MS, Kitamura K, Kosugi Y, Kotani A, Kumar K, Li S-G, Machimura T, Matsuura Y, Mizoguchi Y, Ohta T, Mukherjee S, Yanagi Y, Yasuda Y, Zhang Y and Zhao F (2017) New data-driven estimation of terrestrial CO2 fluxes in Asia using a standardized database of eddy covariance measurements, remote sensing data, and support vector regression. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 122, 767–795, doi:10.1002/2016JG003640

Jacobs SR, Breuer L, Butterbach-Bahl K, Pelster DE, Rufino MC (2017) Land use affects total dissolved nitrogen and nitrate concentrations in tropical montane streams in Kenya. Science of the Total Environment 603–604: 519–532 doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.100

Klatt S, Kraus D, Kraft P, Breuer L, Wlotzka M, Heuveline V, Haas E, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2017) Exploring impacts of vegetated buffer strips on nitrogen cycling using a spatially explicit hydro-biogeochemical modeling approach. Environmental Modelling & Software 90: 55-67 doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.12.002

Lammel DR, Butterbach-Bahl K, Cerri CEP, Louis S, Schnitzler JP, Feigl BJ, Cerri CC (2017) C and N stocks are not impacted by land use change from Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) to agriculture despite changes in soil fertility and microbial abundances. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 180, 436–445 doi:10.1002/jpln.201600614

Molina-Herrera S, Haas E, Grote R, Kiese R, Klatt S, Kraus D, Kampffmeyer T, Friedrich R, Andreae H, Loubet B, Ammann C, Horvath L, Larsen K, Gruening C, Frumau A,  Butterbach-Bahl K (2017) Importance of soil NO emissions for the total atmospheric NOx budget of Saxony, Germany. Atmospheric Environment 152, 61-76,

Owuor SO, Butterbach-Bahl K, Guzha AC, Jacobs J, Merbold L, Rufino M, Pelster DE, Diaz-Pines E, Breuer L (2017) Conversion of natural forest results in a significant degradation of soil hydraulic properties in the highlands of Kenya. Soil and Tillage Research 176, 36-44,

Pelster DE, Rufino MC, Rosenstock T, Mango J , Saiz G, Diaz-Pines E, Baldi G and Butterbach-Bahl K (2017) Smallholder farms in eastern African tropical highlands have low soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Biogeosciences 14, 187–202, doi:10.5194/bg-14-187-2017

Zhang Z, Zhang R, Cescatti A, Wohlfahrt G, Buchmann N, Zhu J, Chen G, Moyano F, Pumpanen J, Hirano T, Takagi K and Merbold L (2017) Effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in boreal and temperate regions. Nature Scientific Reports 7:3108 doi:10.1038/s41598-017-03386-5

Zhou MH, Butterbach-Bahl K, Vereecken H, Brueggemann N (2017) A meta-analysis of soil salinization effects on nitrogen pools, cycles and fluxes in coastal ecosystems. Global Change Biology 23 (3): 1338-1352 doi:10.1111/gcb.13430


Butterbach-Bahl K, Sanders BO, Pelster D, Diaz-Pines E (2016) Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Managed and Natural Soils. In Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg E, Richards M (eds.) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture, pp. 71-96, Springer

Gerschlauer F, Dannenmann M, Kuehnel A, Meier R, Kolar A, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2016) Gross nitrogen turnover of natural and managed tropical ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Ecosystems 19: 1271-1288 doi: 10.1007/s10021-016-0001-3

Goopy JP, Robinson DL, Woodgate RT, Donaldson AJ, Oddy VH, Vercoe PE and Hegarty RS (2016) Estimates of repeatability and heritability of methane production in sheep using portable accumulation chambers. Animal Production Science 56(1) 116-122

Herrero M, Henderson B, Havlik P, Thornton PK, Conant RT, Smith P, Wirsenius S, Hristov AN, Gerber P, Gill M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Valin H, Garnett T, Stehfest E (2016) Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector. Nature Climate Change 6: 452-461 doi: 10.1038/nclimate2925

Hoffman C, Giese M, Dickhoefer U, Wan H, Bai Y, Steffens M, Liu C, Butterbach-Bahl K, Han X (2016) Effects of grazing and climate variability on grassland ecosystems functions in Inner Mongolia: Synthesis of a 6-year grazing experiment. Journal of Arid Environments 135: 50-63 doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2016.08.003

Kittler F, Burjack I, Corradi CAR, Heimann M, Kolle O, Merbold L, Zimov N, Zimov SA and Göckede M (2016) Impacts of a decadal drainage disturbance on surface–atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide in a permafrost ecosystem. Biogeosciences doi:10.5194/bg-13-5315-2016

Korir D, Goopy JP, Gachuiri C, Butterbach-Bahl K, Eckard R and Anderson C (2016) Supplementation with Calliandra calothyrsus improves nitrogen retention in cattle fed low-protein diets. Animal Production Science 56(2/3):619-626 doi:10.1071/AN15569

Kraus D, Weller S, Klatt S, Santabarbara I, Haas E, Wassmann R, Werner C, Kiese R, Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) How well can we assess impacts of agricultural land lanagement changes on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2, CH4, and N2O) of tropcial rice-cropping systems with a biogeochemical model? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 224: 104-115 doi: 10.1016/k.agee.2016/03.037

Kwon MJ, Beulig F, Ilie I, Wildner M, Küsel K, Merbold L, Mahecha M, Zimov N, Zimov SA, Heimann M, Schuur EAG, Kostka JE, Kolle O, Hilke I, Göckede M (2016) Plants, microorganisms, and soil temperatures contribute to a decrease in methane fluxes on a drained Arctic floodplain. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/gcb.13558

Medinets S, Gasche R, Skiba U, Schindlbacher A, Kiese R and Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) Cold season soil NO fluxes from a temperate forest: drivers and contribution to annual budgets. Environmental Research Letters 11: doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114012

Medinets S, Gasche R, Skiba U, Medinets V and Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) The impact of management and climate on soil nitric oxide fluxes from arable land in the Southern Ukraine. Atmospheric Environment 137:113-126

Pelster DE, Gisore B, Goopy JP, Korir D, Koske JK, Rufino MC and Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle excreta on an East African grassland. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(5):1531-1539 doi:10.2134/jeq2016.02.0050

Roman-Cuesta RM, Rufino MC, Herold M, Butterbach-Bahl K, Rosenstock TS, Herrero M, Ogle S, Li C, Poulter B, Verchot L, Martius C, Stuiver J and de Bruin S (2016) Hotspots of gross emissions from the land use sector: patterns, uncertainties, and leading emission sources for the period 2000-2005 in the tropics. Biogeosciences 13: 4253-4269 doi: 10.5149/bg-13-4253-2016

Roman-Cuesta RM, Herold M, Rufino MC, Rosenstock TS, Houghton RA, Rossi S, Butterbach-Bahl K, Ogle S, Poulter S, Verchot L, Martius C and de Bruin S (2016) Multi-gas and multi-source comparisons of six land use emission datasets and AFOLU estimates in the Fifth Assessment Report, for the tropics for 2000-2005. Biogeosciences 13: 5799-5819 doi: 10.5194/bg-13-5799-2016

Rosenstock TS, Mpanda M, Pelster DE, Butterbach-Bahl K, Rufino MC, Thiong’o M, Mutuo P, Abwanda S, Rioux J, Kimaro AA, Neufeldt H (2016) Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania. Journal of Geophysical research – Biogeosciences 121: 1568-1580 doi: 10.1002/2016JG003341

Rosenstock TS, Sander BO, Butterbach-Bahl K, Rufino MC, Hickman J, Stirling C, Richards MI, Wollenberg E (2016) Introduction to the SAMPLES Approach. In Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg E, Richards M (eds.) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture, pp. 1-13, Springer

Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Chirinda N, Van Brussels L, Reidsma P, Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) Scaling Point and Plot Measurements of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes, Balances, and Intensities to Whole Farms and Landscapes. In Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg E, Richards M (eds.) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture, pp. 175-188, Springer

Rufino MC, Atzberger C, Baldi G, Butterbach-Bahl K, Rosenstock TS, Stern D, (2016) Targeting Landscapes to Identify Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture. In Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wollenberg E, Richards M (eds.) Methods for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Balances and Evaluating Mitigation Options in Smallholder Agriculture, pp. 15-36, Springer

Saiz G, Wandera FM, Pelster DE, Ngetich W, Okalebo JR, Rufino MC and Butterbach-Bahl K (2016). Long-term assessment of soil and water conservation measures (Fanya-juu terraces) on soil organic matter in South Eastern Kenya. Geoderma 247: 1-9

Sándor R, Ehrhardt F, Basso B, Bellocchi G, Bhati A5, Brilli L, De Antoni Migliorati M, Doltra J, Dorich C, Doro L, Fitton N, Giacomini SJ, Grace P, Grant B, Harrison MT, Jones S, Kirschbaum MUF, Klumpp K, Laville P, Léonard J, Liebig M, Lieffering M, Martin R, McAuliffe R, Meier E, Merbold L, Moore A, Myrgiotis V, Newton P, Pattey E, Recous S, Rolinski S, Sharp J, Massad RS, Smith P, Smith W, Snow V, Wu L, Zhang Q, Soussana JF (2016) C and N models Intercomparison – benchmark and ensemble model estimates for grassland production. Advances in Animal Biosciences doi:10.1017/S2040470016000297

Smith P, Merbold L & Van den Pol-van Dasselaar A (2016) Role of European grasslands in the mitigation of climate change – potential, constraints and research challenges. In: The multiple roles of grassland in the European bioeconomy. Proceedings of the 26th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation, Trondheim, Norway, 4-8 September 2016. Eds: Höglind, M., Bakken, A.K., Hovstad, K.A., Kallioniemi, E., Riley, H., Steinshamn, H. & Østrem, L. pp. 730-745. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, NL.

Zhou M, Zhu B, Brueggemann N, Dannenmann M, wang Y, Butterbach-Bahl K (2016) Sustaining crop productivity while reducing environmental nitrogen losses in the subtropical wheat-maize cropping systems: A comprehensive case study of nitrogen cycling and balance. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 231: 1-14 doi: 10.1016/j.agee/2016.06.022


Barton L, Wolf B, Rowlings D, Scheer C, Kiese R, Grace P, Stefanova K and Butterbach-Bahl K (2015) Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes. Nature Scientific Reports 5: 15912 doi: 10.1038/srep15912

Diaz-Pines E, Heras P, Gasche R, Rubio A, Rennenberg H, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2015) Nitrous oxide emissions from stems and ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Plant and Soil 398 (1): 35-45 doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2629-8

Liu M, Dannenmann M, Lin S, Saiz G, Yan G, Yao Z, Pelster DE, Tao H, Sippel S, Tao Y, Zhang Y, Zheng X, Zuo Q and Butterbach-Bahl K (2015) Gorund cover rice production systems increase soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at regional scale. Biogeosciences 12: 4831-4840 doi: 10.5194/bg-12-4831-2015

Merbold L, Wohlfahrt G, Butterbach-Bahl K, Pilegaard K, DelSontro T, Stoy P and Zona D (2015) Preface: Towards a ful greenhouse gas balance of the biosphere. Biogeosciences 12: 453-456 doi: 10.5194/bg-12-453-2015

Wang C, Butterbach-Bahl K, He N, Wang Q, Xing X, Han X (2015) Nitrogen addition and mowing affect microbial nitrogen transformations in a C4 grassland in northern China. European Journal of Soil Science 66: 485-495 doi:10.1111/ejss.12231

Weller S, Kraus D, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wassmann R, Tirol-Padre A and Kiese R (2015) Diurnal patterns of methane emissions from paddy rice fields in the Philippines. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 178: 756-767 doi:10.1002/jpln.201500092

Weller S, Janz B, Joerg L, Kraus D, Racela HSU, Wassmann R, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2015) Greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of traditional and diversified tropical rice rotation systems. Global Change Biology 22: 432-448 doi: 10.1111/gcb.13099

Zhou M, Zhu B, Brueggemann N, Wang X, Zheng X, Butterbach-Bahl K (2105) Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from a subtropical rice-rapeseed rotation systems in China: a 3-year field case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 212: 297-309 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.07.010


Dickhofer U, Butterbach-Bahl K and Pelster DE (2014) What is needed for reducing the greenhouse gas footprint? Rural21 48(4):31-33

Kraus D, Weller S, Klatt S, Haas E, Wassmann R, Kiese R and Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) A new LandscapeDNDC biogeochemical module to predict CH4 and N2O emissions from lowland rice and upland cropping systems. Plant and Soil 1-25 doi:10.1007/s11104-014-2255-x

Medinets S, Skiba U, Rennenberg H and Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) A review of soil NO transformation: associated processes and possible physiological significance on organisms. Soil Biology and Biogeochemistry 80: 92-117 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.09.025

Rosenstock TS, Tully KL, Arias-Navarro C, Neufeldt H, Butterbach-Bahl K and Verchot LV (2014) Agroforestry with N2-fixing trees: Sustainable development’s friend or foe? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6: 15-21

Rufino MC, Brandt P, Herrero M and Butterbach-Bahl K 2(014) Reducing uncertainty in nitrogen budgets for African livestock systems. Environmental Research Letters 9 (10): 105008 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/105008

Weller S, Kraus D, Ayag KRP, Wassmann R, Alberto MCR, Butterbach-Bahl K, Kiese R (2014) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice and maize production in diversified rice cropping systems. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 101 (1): 37-53 doi:10.1007/s10705-014-9658-1

Zhou M, Zhu B, Butterbach-Bahl K, Wang X, Zhend X (2014) Nitrous oxide emissions during the non-rice growing seasons of two subtropical rice-based rotation systems in southwest China. Plant and Soil 383: 401-414 doi: 10.1007/s11104-014-2174-x

Zhou M, Zhu B, Brueggemann N, Bergmann J, Wang Y, Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) N2O and CH4 emissions, and NO3- leaching on a crop-yield basis from subtropical rain-fed wheat-maize rotation in response to different types of nitrogen fertilizer. Ecosystems 17: 286-301 doi: 10.1007/s10021-013-9723-7

Zhou M and Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) Assessment of nitrate leaching loss on a yield-scaled basis from maize and wheat cropping systems. Plant and Soil 374: 977-991 doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1876-9

Zhou M, Brandt PPelster DE, Rufino MC, Robinson T and Butterbach-Bahl K (2014) Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: Syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives. Environmental Research Letters 9: 105009 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/105009


Arias-Navarro C, Díaz-Pinés E, Kiese R, Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Stern D, Neufeldt H, Verchot LV, Butterbach-Bahl K (2013) Gas pooling: a sampling technique to overcome spatial heterogeneity of soil carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67: 20-23

Butterbach-Bahl K and Kiese R (2013) Bioenergy: Biofuel production on the margins. Nature 493: 483-485 doi:10.1038/nature11853

Butterbach-Bahl K, Baggs EM, Dannenmann M, Kiese R, Zechmeiste-Boltenstern S (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368: doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0122

Fowler D, Coyle M, Skiba U, Sutton MA, Cape JN, Reis S, Sheppard LJ, Jenkins A, Grizetti B, Galloway JN, Vitousek P, Leach A, Bouwman AF, Butterbach-Bahl K, Dentener F, Stevenson D, Amann M, Voss Ml (2013) The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 368(1621): 1471-2970 doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0164

Haas E, Klatt S, Fröhlich A, Kraft P, Werner C, Kiese R, Grote R, Breuer L and Butterbach-Bahl K (2013) LandscapeDNDC: A process model for simulation of biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere exchange processes at site and landscape scale. Landscape Ecology 28(4): 615-636 doi:10.1007/s10980-012-9772-x

Luo GJ, Kiese R, Wolf B and Butterbach-Bahl K (2013) Effects of soil temperature and moisture on methane uptake and nitrous oxide emissions across three different ecosystem types. Biogeosciences 10: 3205-3219 doi:10.5194/bg-10-3205-2013

Ogle SM, Buendia L, Butterbach-Bahl K, Breidt FJ, Hartmann M, Yagi K, Nayamuth R, Spences S, Wirth T and Smith P (2013) Advancing national greenhouse gas inventories for agriculture in developing countries: improving activity data, emission factors and software technology. Environmental Research Letters 8: doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015030

Rosenstock TS, Rufino MC, Butterbach-Bahl K and Wollenberg E (2013) Towards a protocol for quantifying the greenhouse gas balance and identifying mitigation options in smallholder farming systems. Environmental Research Letters 8: doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/2/021003

Rosenstock TS, Diaz-Pines E, Zuazo P, Jordan G, Predotova M, Mutuo P, Abwanda S, Thiong’o M, Buerkert A, Rufino MC, Kiese R, Neufeldt H and Butterbach-Bahl K (2013) Accuracy and precision of photoacoustic spectroscopy not guaranteed. Global Change Biology 19(12): 3565-3567 doi: 10.1111/gcb.12332

Wang R, Feng Q, Liao T, Zheng X, Butterbach-Bahl K, Zhang W and Jin C (2013) Effects of nitrate concentration on the denitrification potential of a calcic cambisol and its fractions of N2, N2O and NO. Plant and Soil 363(1-2): 175 – 189 doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1264-x

Wu X, Liu G, Butterbach-Bahl K, Zheng X and Brüggemann N (2013) Effects of land cover and soil properties on denitrification potential in soils of two semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Arid Environments 92: 98 – 101

Zhou M, Zhu B, Butterbach-Bahl K, Zheng X, Wang T and Wang Y (2013) Nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching from a rain-fed wheat-maize rotation in the Sichuan Basin, China. Plant and Soil 362(1-2): 149 – 159 doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1269-5